Designed especially for horses:
with increased joint stress
during preparation for competitions
during the season for maintaining the joints
after the season, during regeneration process
for the improvement of joint mobility, also suitable for stiff joints
after an injury or during musculoskeletal diseases
during joint, tendon or ligament inflammation
for intensive and effective regeneration
Hyaluronic acid is the most common mucopolysaccharide (glycosaminoglycans), which are a fundamental component of the extracellular part of epithelial and connective tissues (skin, tendons, blood vessels, cartilages, bones etc.). Hyaluronic acid is also the main structural component of cartilages. As a glycoprotein, hyaluronic acid forms gelled and slimy substances (synovial cavity, vitreous body, mucus etc.).
Hyaluronic acid is composed of 250 - 25000 units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine acid linked by β- (1→3) glycosidic bond. Creates highly viscous solution. With added cations creates salts, for example hyaluronan sodium.
Hyaluronic acid can be found in the structure of skin preventing the penetration of bacteria into the tissues, as well as in cartilages or vitreous body. Has lubricating effects of synovial cavity - reduces friction and absorbs impact. Hyaluronic acid also stimulates endogenous production of hyaluronic acid by synovial membrane cells (inner part of articular capsule, improves cartilage cell metabolism and inhibits its degradation.
Another component of extracellular part of epithelial is another glycosaminoglycans substance - chondroitin sulfate. It is a polysaccharide composed of glucuronate monomers and N-acetylgalactosamine with a phosphate group. Chondroitin sulfate binds cells in animal tissues.
Chondroitin sulfate forms up to 40% of some of the cartilages and is also contained in tendons, bones, skin and saliva glycoproteins. Chondroitin sulfate also binds water, which creates flexibility effect in cartilages.
The most common modern disease connected to the articular system is the knee joint arthrosis. Nowadays, the most popular treatment is intra-articular injection, which leads to a great discomfort, during the procedure itself and also for the repetition of the treatment. There is also a risk of complication, therefore it is desirable to change the treatment for an easier option, which is oral administration.
It is important for the oral administration of the hyaluronic acid to be effectively absorbed into the joints. Results of various animal testing shows that it is possible. During the experiments with radiolabelled hyaluronic acid proved its absorption and the acid was found for example in skin, bones, blood, salivary gland and joints. The acid remained in the tissues for a long period of time, even in case of hyaluronan, with molecular mass higher than 1Da.
The effects of orally administered hyaluronan can be impaired by intestinal bacteria, however experiments on animals and humans as well as organism models and clinical trials on humans shows that in majority of cases, hyaluronan is retained, absorbed and preserves its biological activity. Recently published clinical trials also proved that hyaluronic acid in higher amount supports biological processes that suppress inflammation.
Recently, there were many clinical testings working with patients suffering with osteoporosis in various stages. Dosage and usage period differed, dosage from 60 mg up to 200 mg daily, usage period from 8 weeks to 12 months. Clinical testing focused not only on articular system condition, but also on usual symptoms such as pain, stiffness and mobility. Recently published results show proved the assumption that hyaluronic acid reduces those symptoms significantly.